Clinical Experience

A) Echo and Doppler echocardiography.


  1. Established the first 2-Dimensional echo laboratory in India in 1979, and the first Doppler laboratory at Kuwait in 1985. Extensive experience in clinical echocardiography from 1979. Hands on experience in neonatal, paediatric and adult echo studies. Have used equipments manufactured by ATL, Varian, Irex, Toshiba, Aloka, and Hewlett Packard. Experience in using color 2-D echocardiography (Brompton Encoder) for tissue characterization as well many generations of echo analyzing computers.
  2. Have worked in Echo Laboratory of Brompton Hospital, London, U.K. for training in color coded echocardiography, 1982.
  3. Have worked in the Echo and Doppler laboratory of V.A. Wadsworth Medical Center, University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A. as Senior Research Associate for one year, 1983.
  4. Experience in Doppler echocardiography from 1983 and Color Doppler blood flow imaging from 1986 (One month training at the Echo Doppler Laboratory, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. 1986).
  5. Experience in Trans Esophageal Echocardiography. Have done TEE studies in the Echo laboratory, intensive care unit as well as in the operation theater.


B) Cardiac Catheterization.


Worked in the cardiac catheterization laboratory of the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India, from 1971 to 1976. Have done more than 1000 procedures in paediatric and adult patients.


C) Clinical Cardiology.


From 1969 worked as Cardiologist at the Medical College and Hospital, Kerala, and at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. From 1981 to 1985 worked as chief 2nd cardiac unit and from 1987 onwards as Professor and Head of the Department of Cardiology at the Medical College and Hospital, Kerala, (at Kottayam and Trivandrum), India. Experence in organising and managing Intensive Cardiac Care Units. Management of all varieties of Pre and postoperative cardiac patients. Experience in organizing and running stress and Holter laboratories.


D)Experimental Cardiology.


Have research experience in both animal and human experiments. (See research work)




  1. Chief of the second cardiac unit at the Trivandrum Medical College and Hospital from 1977 to 1985.
  2. Professor and Head of the Department of Cardiology at Medical Colleges in Kottayam and Trivandrum, Kerala, India.
  3. At Kuwait University and Chest Diseases Hospital Worked as the Chief of Echo Doppler Laboratories from 1985 October to 1993 July.
  4. Professor and Head of Cardiology Department at the Medical college and Hospital, Trivandrum, Kerala, India, the largest department of cardiology in Kerala state and the main tertiary referral center for all cardiac patients.


Research Work

A)At the Medical College and Hospital, Trivandrum, India.


  1. Late potentials in Endomyocardial Fibrosis,
  2. Prognostic factors in Cerbera Odollum poisoning,
  3. Comparative study of Cerbera Odollum and Thevetia Nerifolia poisoning.
  4. Morphometric study of normal coronary arteries in Indians.


B)At the Faculty of Medicine, and Chest Hospital, Kuwait.


  1. Regional localization of calcium in the mitral apparatus. Study using 2-Dimensional echocardiography and examination of the excised valve.
  2. Interatrial flow dynamics in atrial septal defect; study using Doppler blood flow imaging.
  3. Spatial geometry of rheumatic mitral regurgitation jet in color Doppler blood flow imaging
  4. Right ventricular ejection characteristics in isolated pulmonary valvar stenosis; A Doppler echocardiographic study.
  5. Morphometric studies in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome.
  6. Pulmonary venous flow pattern in rheumatic mitral stenosis; A trans esophageal Echo study.


(Papers presented at the World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology, Feb 1987 at Vienna, Austria; at the Asian Pacific conference on Doppler and Echocardiography Nov 1987 at San Diego, U.S.A, World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology, Nov 1989, at Bangkok, Thailand and World Congress of Cardiology, Feb 1990, at Manila, Philippines.)


C)At the University of California, Los Angeles, U.S.A.


  1. Multiple apical cross sectional echocardiography in the: -

    (i) Study of mitral valve apparatus in ischaemic mitral valve prolapse
    (ii) Study of left ventricular asynergy in patients with chronic stable angina. (Paper presented at the American Heart association Annual meeting, 1983 at Anaheim, California, U.S.A.)
  2. Role of continuous wave Doppler in Cardiology. (Paper published in American Heart Journal 1983; 107: 1275-1276, American Journal of cardiology, 1985; 56: 465-469 and in "Doppler Echocardiography; A Practical Manual" published by John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A. 1985)


D)At the Medical College and Hospital, Trivandum, India.


  1. Two dimensional echocardiographic features of tropical endomyocardial fibrosis with special reference to regional echo intensity.

    (Papers presented at the American Heart Association annual meeting at Dallas, Texas, U.S.A Nov 1982, at the World congress of Tropical Cardiology at Bombay, India 1982, at the Asian Pacific Congress of Cardiology at Bangkok, Thailand, 1984, at the First Asian Pacific Conference on Doppler and Echocardiography at Tokyo, Japan, 1985 and at the Second Asian Pacific Conference on Doppler and Echocardiography at San Diego, U.S.A. Nov 1987. Papers published in British Heart Journal 1983; 50: 450-459, Postgraduate Medical Journal 1982; 59: 179-183)


E)At the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India.


  1. Effect of beta-adrenergic blocking agents in the haemodynamics of: -

    i) Tetralogy of Fallot,
    ii) Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (Published in Indian Heart Journal 1976; 28: 165-169, & Journal of Association of Physician’s of India, 1976; 24:631-636)
  2. Haemodynamics of Endomyocardial fibrosis, (Published in British Heart Journal 1977; 39:563-568, and American Heart Journal, 1983; 105: 659-666)
  3. Cardiovascular effects of intravenous Verapamil in normal subjects. (Published in Indian Heart Journal 1978; 30: 159-162)


F)As a part of Doctor of Medicine (Cardiology ) programme at the Christian Medical College and Hospital, Vellore, India. “Cardiovascular effects of Cerebrin” (Published in Indian Heart Journal, 1974; 26: 79-83 and in the Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 1973; 5: 249)


G)As a part of Doctor of Medicine (Internal Medicine) programme at the Medical College, Trivandrum, India. “Carbohydrate and Lipid metabolism in the normal relatives of diabetic subjects”. Thesis submitted to the University of Kerala, India, 1969. (Paper presented at the First National conference on Diabetes Mellitus, Madras, India, January, 1969.)